Bio Fertilizers

Generally, the term "fertilizer" is used to mean "fertilizing a carrier or carrier", meaning any substance containing one or more essential elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese Molybdenum, copper, boron, zinc, chlorine, sodium, cobalt, vanadium and silicon) are called fertilizers. Therefore, fertilizer is used to increase soil fertility.

Biofertilizers contain micro-organisms that stimulate and promote plant growth when used on seed, root surface or soil. In recent years, chemical fertilizers to farmers has helped to increase the agricultural production to meet growing demand. However, over-consumption of these fertilizers is harmful because they in addition to polluting the air and water discharge the soil from the minerals. Therefore, it is necessary to go into organic farming, one of the pillars of the use of "bio fertilizers"

Biological fertilizer

"Bio" means "life". Thus, by definition, biological fertilizers are microorganisms that are able to convert nutrients in the biological process into nutrients such as vitamins and other minerals and reach the root of the plant. Biological fertilizers instead of chemicals to use microbes to increase soil nutrition are mentioned. As a result, they cause less damage to the soil and also prevent it from being contaminated, which is what organic farming cares about because they are completely environmentally friendly.

The term "biological fertilizer" has been coined in different terms over the past 20 years because it has gained a better understanding of the relationship between rhizosphere and plant microorganisms over time. In 2005, biological fertilizer was defined as "a product containing living microorganisms that directly or indirectly exerts product growth and function through various mechanisms."

Biological fertilizer nutrients needed by plants are able to form unusable for plants convert to usable form. These microorganisms need organic matter for their growth and activity in the soil and provide nutrients to plants. The microorganisms in the biological fertilizer regenerate the soil's natural nutrients cycle and produce soil organic matter. The use of bio-fertilizers improves plant growth, while improving soil stability and health.

Types of biological fertilizers:

1. Bacteria
2. Fungi
3. Cyanobacteria


You may have read about nitrogen-fixing nodes in bean roots. This is a great example of biofertilizer. The nodes are formed by attaching Rhizobium to the roots of these plants. This communication is beneficial and is therefore called "coexistence".
These nodes help stabilize atmospheric nitrogen in organic forms to become a plant-usable form. Adding rhizobia to the fields is a common way to ensure the right amount of nitrogen in the soil.
Examples of bacteria that act as biological fertilizers include Azospirillum and Azotobacter. These bacteria live in the soil. Azotobacter is commonly used in products such as cotton, wheat, mustard, corn, etc.


There is a mutual coexistence between the roots of a plant and the fungi. These symbiotic fungi are called "Mycorrhizae". Mycorrhizal fungi converts phosphorus in soil into an attractive form for plants. Plants that grow with these fungi also have other characteristics, such as:
Tolerance to drought and salinity.
Resistance to root pathogens.
Increase plant growth.


These microorganisms are blue -green bacteria in the water and on the ground. They also help stabilize atmospheric nitrogen. Examples of these cyanobacteria are Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Anabaena, and others.
The symbiotic relationship between Fresno Azola Aqua and Annabana is very important for rice fields. In this respect, the anaerobic bacterium receives carbon and nitrogen from the plant and converts it into a usable form for the plant. These microorganisms add organic matter to the soil, which increases the fertility of rice fields.
Many biological fertilizers are commercially produced and marketed today for the consumption of farmers. Biological fertilizers not only help increase nutrients in the soil, but also reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers. These fertilizers help preserve the mineral content in the soil and reduce a great deal of environmental pollution