Important pests of tomatoes

 1- Tuta absoluta

Tomato leaf minnow or tomato willow is one of the most serious and important pests of tomatoes and potatoes in the world which is of great economic importance. This pest can also feed on eggplant in the absence of suitable hosts, namely tomatoes and potatoes. The pest can overwinter during the egg, larval, pupal and insect stages. The life span of the tomato moth butterfly ranges from egg to complete insect 65-90 days. Also the life span of the complete insect is 30-40 days, eggs 5-7 days, pupa 10-13 days and larvae 19-21 days.

Pest damage

-This pest damages the flower, leaves, stems and fruit at the fruiting stage.
-It causes minosis on tomato leaves.
- When the tomato enters the fruit, it crushes the fruit.
- The larval remnants at the larvae are brownish in color.
- Reduces product marketability.


 












 
Pest prevention and control methods

- Observe crop rotation
- Use of sticky yellow traps before transplanting
- Pest monitoring using Delta Pheromone Traps
- deep soil tillage between two seasons of planting and covering the soil with plastic mulch or conducting - Solarization
- Regular monitoring of the product to identify the first signs of damage
- Collecting and destroying pesticide-contaminated plant products and products
- Weed control to prevent pest populations from growing on alternative plant hosts
- Use the trichogram to parasitize the eggs of this insect.
- Using pheromone traps for mass hunting of tomato minos
- Use appropriate chemicals such as avant-garde + tomato minus control cypromethrin, triglyceride, sumy polo, broccoli fate, lofox
- Use appropriate biological pesticides such as biolup



2-Helicoverpa armigera

This pest is highly polyphage and has different types of damage on different hosts. Butterflies start in spring depending on the temperature from mid-April and the female insects lay mating individually on both sides of the leaves, stems, petiole, and host leaves. Under favorable conditions 3-5 days later hatched eggs and larvae start feeding at the same site. Growth and appearance of the first generation of pest is observed in peas, early tomatoes, alfalfa and some weeds and rarely in early planting cotton. The larval period lasts about 3 weeks and has 6 larval ages. The duration of one generation varies from 38 to 44 days. It has 3-4 generations per year and tropical generations up to 5 generations per year


Pest damage



- Young larvae, after hatching, first feed on leaf parenchyma and leave the veins.

Most of the damage is caused by the larvae attacking the fertile parts of the plant, including flowers, buds, fruits.

Infection in the infected fruit is seen as black larval cavities filled with pest waste.

- In some cases, pest damage was exacerbated by fruit spoilage
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Pest prevention and control methods

Deep plowing
Use of resistant varieties
Using Pheromone Traps
BT Biological Toxins and Brachon Bees
Use of appropriate chemical pesticides to control tomato fruit cream such as Avant + Saipermetrin, Wrist, Trigard, Sumo Polo, Broccoli Fit
Use appropriate biological pesticides such as biolup



3-Aculops lycopersici

Most hosts of this mite are Solanaceae family plants that include tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, grapes, black radishes, tobacco and peppers. Females lay their eggs beneath the leaves and near the middle vein, the embryonic period of egg laying for two days, after which the larvae hatch and undergo two nymphal stages to become mature. In very good condition the female ticks live up to 6 weeks and lay up to 50 eggs. The best living conditions for this mite are semi-arid regions with high temperatures and low relative humidity. The period of development and appearance of the pest from egg to adult stage is 5 days on average and 4 days for males. Females have 22 days of life, producing 16 eggs during their 19-day hatching period.

Tomatoes are the preferred host for this mite because this pest is active on other hosts but its feeding does not damage them, but it continues to grow and grow permanently, ie the relationship between the pest and the host is permanent. has it.
In the absence of a suitable plant host, tomato fennel can survive for up to 4 days without food. This tick is highly susceptible to winter cold and, in the absence of proper shelter, all its biological stages will be destroyed within a few hours at near-freezing temperatures. This mite spends the winter as an adult.


Pest damage

Typical symptoms of this mite are silver and the tan surface of the leaves.
Early symptoms of damage to tomato bushes can be seen in the complexity of the lower leaves and the appearance of shiny silver in the underside of the leaves.
By continuing to feed the pests, the plants wither and wither to reddish brown, thus drying up.
Damage to the foliage is often sunburnt.
Its damage to the fruit has also been seen to halt growth.
Infected fruits are also often pale or yellow to silver-white.
The number of ticks on the lower leaves is always higher than on the upper leaves.
Poor folds appear on the leaf surface, which are somewhat similar to the symptoms of viral disease.
As the feeding continues, the stems also become fawn and bronze, and often split longitudinally.
At high population density and density, the leaves are dried and hung from the bushes.
Fruits usually do not show any signs of rust before they are dyed, but at this stage they often find a state of sunburn, mainly due to leaf fall.




Methods of prevention and pest control

Collect and destroy the remains of plants that can be good shelter for overwintering.
Control of weed hosts inside and outside the farm margins
Avoid re-cultivation and earlier tomatoes or potatoes
Use of appropriate chemical pesticides such as abamectin, propargit, anvidur, aubron