History of amino acids





Plants, like any other organism, require compounds that ultimately lead to their growth. The most important of these compounds are essential for protein plants. The heavy and tall molecules that make up the amino acid bond together form peptide chains. About 20 amino acids and 2 amides are involved in the protein production process in the plant. In fact, plants make amino acids from the basic elements of carbon and oxygen in the air, hydrogen in the water, and nitrogen in the soil in a simple, elementary process. The first amino acids were discovered in a very limited number in the early 19th century. In 1806 French chemists isolated a compound in Asparagus, later called asparagine. Asparagine was the first amino acid to be discovered. Subsequently in 1810 cysteine ​​and in 1820 glycine and leucine were discovered.


Necessary

Amino acids are divided into two essential and unnecessary categories. Essential amino acids are those amino acids that the plant is unable to synthesize and must be provided to the plant and unnecessary amino acids are synthesized by the plant.


The role of amino acids in plants

Amino acids act as a stimulant of quantitative and qualitative growth of the plant. These compounds play an important role in the biosynthesis of secondary and hormonal metabolites. In general, amino acids are substances that stimulate metabolism and metabolic processes to increase plant efficiency. Therefore, the use of biomarkers can be one of the most important factors in the successful cultivation of a plant, because in addition to the quantitative indices, they also affect the plant's qualitative indices, which are due to the amino acids used in its composition and formulation. These are biomarkers that increase mRNA transcription by up to 2.5-fold, by activating hormones that are important for reproductive growth, activating carbohydrate formation, enhancing the uptake and transport of elements, and increasing protein levels in plants, improving quantitative and qualitative properties in plants. They are shorter in duration, especially in conditions of environmental stress. Amino acids increase the growth and yield of plants by increasing the concentration of chlorophyll and thus affecting photosynthesis. Glutamic acid, for example, can act as an osmotic agent of cystoplasm in the stomatal guard cells to open and close the stomata. Arginine also increases the synthesis of plant hormones associated with flowering and fruiting. Therefore, amino acids, directly and indirectly, affect the physiological, growth and development activities of the plant.

In general, the effects of amino acids on plants can be classified as follows:

1- Fast Nutrition Function
Amino acids are an energy reservoir that are sprayed on the plant and allow the plant to build plant tissues and structures with less difficulty.

2 - Balancing plant growth
The amino acid compounds successfully penetrate the leaves, fruits and flowers and increase plant growth.

3. Reduce stress
Under stressful environmental conditions (cold, frost, drought, high temperatures), or in other words, any condition that leads to plant stoppage activates the consumption of amino acid components of vegetative and reproductive growth and maintains plant survival and fertility.

4- Adjust the activity of the air holes
The airways are cellular structures that balance the plant's metabolic activities and are controlled by environmental factors such as light, moisture, temperature and salt concentration. Use of amino acid-containing compounds in adverse environmental conditions prevents airway blockage.

 5- Strengthening the plant's immune system
Compounds containing amino acids increase plant resistance to pests and diseases through increased production of lignin (plant tissue) and rapid repair of damaged tissues.

 6. Quantitative and qualitative increase of product
Activating the process of sugar formation and increasing the amount of protein derived from amino acid consumption improves the qualitative properties (fruit taste and color) and the quantitative properties (weight gain and fruit size uniformity).

7- Induction of the pollination process
Amino acids improve the germination of pollen grains and increase flowering by activating the hormones that influence flower and fruit formation.

8. Increase product handling speed
Amino acids induce ethylene hormone to increase product maturity.

9- Increase the speed of formation of plant organs
Amino acids are involved in the formation of plant organs by controlling growth hormone (PGR) and its influence on plant metabolic and metabolic processes.

10- Increase the shelf life of post harvest products

11. Increase of greenness and production of chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is a molecule responsible for sunlight absorption and photosynthesis. Amino acid is a key ingredient in chlorophyll synthesis.

12. Chelating property
The use of amino acids with micro nutrients facilitates absorption and transport of these elements in the plant. Therefore, amino acid chelates are of particular importance. Because amino acid chelates lack electrical charge, they easily cross the cuticle layer and transport the chelated element to the cell site. One of the prominent benefits of amino acid chelates is their high mobility in the plant.